## What are 3D shapes?

3D shapes are shapes with three dimensions, such as width, height and depth.

3D shapes are shapes with three dimensions, such as width, height and depth.

The **side** of a 3D shape is called the **face**. 3D shape faces are flat.

The **edges** of a 3D shape are where the faces meet.

The **corners** of a 3D shape are called **vertices**. **Vertex** is the singular of **vertices**.

A **regular 3D shape’s** faces are all equal. A cube is an example of a regular 3D shape. It has six square faces that are all the same size.

An **irregular 3D shape** has faces of differing shapes and sizes. A cylinder is an example of an irregular 3D shape. It has three faces, two are circles and one is a rectangle.

A **polyhedron** is a 3D shape made up of a collection of flat polygons. Polyhedrons can have any number of faces. Triangular prisms and cubes are examples of polyhedrons.

Here is a selection of some of the common 3D shapes and their properties:

- A sphere is a three-dimensional shape.
- A sphere has 1 curved face.
- A sphere has no vertices.
- A sphere has no edges.
- A sphere is symmetrical.
- A sphere is not a polyhedron.

- A hemisphere is a three-dimensional shape.
- A hemisphere has 2 faces. 1 curved face and 1 flat circular face.
- A hemisphere has no vertices.
- A hemisphere has 1 edge.
- A hemisphere is half of a sphere.
- A hemisphere is not a polyhedron.

- A cube is a three-dimensional shape.
- A cube has 6 flat faces.
- A cube's faces are all squares. They are all the same size and shape.
- A cube has 8 vertices.
- A cube has 12 edges.
- A cube is a polyhedron.

- A cuboid is a three-dimensional shape.
- A cuboid has 6 flat faces.
- A cuboid's faces are all rectangles.
- A cuboid has 8 vertices.
- A cuboid has 12 edges.
- A cuboid doesn’t have to have regular faces like a cube.
- A cuboid is a polyhedron.

- A cone is a three-dimensional shape.
- A cone has 2 faces. One is a flat circular face. The other is a curved face.
- A cone has 1 apex. (The pointed tip of a cone is called the apex.)
- A cone has 1 edge.
- The flat circular face of a cone is the base.
- A cone is not a polyhedron.

- A cylinder is a three-dimensional shape.
- A cylinder has 3 faces. Two of the faces are flat circular faces, one is a curved rectangular face.
- A cylinder has 0 vertices.
- A cylinder has 2 edges.
- A cylinder is not a polyhedron.

- A triangular prism is a three-dimensional shape.
- A triangular prism has 5 faces. Two of the faces are flat triangular faces, three are flat rectangular faces.
- A triangular prism has 6 vertices.
- A triangular prism has 9 edges.
- A triangular prism is a polyhedron.

- A pentagonal prism is a three-dimensional shape.
- A pentagonal prism has 7 faces. Two of the faces are flat pentagonal faces, five are flat rectangular faces.
- A pentagonal prism has 10 vertices.
- A pentagonal prism has 15 edges.
- A pentagonal prism is a polyhedron.

- A hexagonal prism is a three-dimensional shape.
- A hexagonal prism has 8 faces. Two of the faces are flat hexagonal faces, six are flat rectangular faces.
- A hexagonal prism has 12 vertices.
- A hexagonal prism has 18 edges.
- A hexagonal prism is a polyhedron.

- A triangular based pyramid is a three-dimensional shape.
- A triangular based pyramid has 4 faces. All of the faces are flat triangular faces.
- A triangular based pyramid has 4 vertices.
- A triangular based pyramid has 6 edges.
- A triangular based pyramid is a polyhedron.

- A square based pyramid is a three-dimensional shape.
- A square based pyramid has 5 faces. Four of the faces are flat triangular faces, one of the faces is a square.
- A square based pyramid has 5 vertices.
- A square based pyramid has 8 edges.
- A square based pyramid is a polyhedron.

- A rectangular based pyramid is a three-dimensional shape.
- A rectangular based pyramid has 5 faces. Four of the faces are flat triangular faces, one of the faces is a rectangle.
- A rectangular based pyramid has 5 vertices.
- A rectangular based pyramid has 8 edges.
- A rectangular based pyramid is a polyhedron.

3D shapes are taught as part of the geometry strands of the maths curriculum. This strand is *geometry - properties of shapes*.

3D shapes are first taught in **year 1** when children:

*- recognise and name common 2-D and 3-D shapes, including: 3-D shapes [for example, cuboids (including cubes), pyramids and spheres].*

In **Year 2** children:

*- identify and describe the properties of 3-D shapes, including the number of edges, vertices and faces*

*- identify 2-D shapes on the surface of 3-D shapes [for example, a circle on a cylinder and a triangle on a pyramid]*

*- compare and sort common 2-D and 3-D shapes and everyday objects.*

In **Year 3** children:

*- draw 2-D shapes and make 3-D shapes using modelling materials; recognise 3-D shapes in different orientations and describe them*

In **Year 5** children:

*- identify 3-D shapes, including cubes and other cuboids, from 2-D representations*

In **Year 6** children:

*- recognise, describe and build simple 3-D shapes, including making nets*