# Times tables

## What is a times table?

A times table is a list of multiples of a number.

## Learning times tables

Times tables can be learned by practicing counting in multiples, learning by rote and applying your knowledge of number facts.

The English National Curriculum sets out the expectation that children will know their times tables up to 12 x 12 by the end of Year 4.

Scroll down the page to learn about the zero times table all the way up to the thirteen times table!

## 0 times table

The zero times table is:

1 x 0 = 0

2 x 0 = 0

3 x 0 = 0

4 x 0 = 0

5 x 0 = 0

6 x 0 = 0

7 x 0 = 0

8 x 0 = 0

9 x 0 = 0

10 x 0 = 0

11 x 0 = 0

12 x 0 = 0

13 x 0 = 0

The product of the zero times table is always zero. Think about these number sentences as a word problem.

You go to six shops looking for a toy. None of the shops sell toys. How many toys do you find? Six lots of zero is zero!

You play a game ten times. You win zero games. How many times did you win? Ten lots of zero equals… zero!

How many apples do you have in fifteen empty boxes of apples? 15 x 0 = ?

## 1 times table

The one times table is:

1 x 1 = 1

2 x 1 = 2

3 x 1 = 3

4 x 1 = 4

5 x 1 = 5

6 x 1 = 6

7 x 1 = 7

8 x 1 = 8

9 x 1 = 9

10 x 1 = 10

11 x 1 = 11

12 x 1 = 12

13 x 1 = 13

What do you notice about the one times table? Can you explain what is happening in each number sentence?

You might have noticed the products in the one times table are the same as the other factor or multiplier in the number sentence. The products alternate between odd and even numbers because they go up in ones. Each product is one more than the product before.

What are 20 lots of 1? 20 x 1 = ?

## 2 times table

The two times table is:

1 x 2 = 2

2 x 2 = 4

3 x 2 = 6

4 x 2 = 8

5 x 2 = 10

6 x 2 = 12

7 x 2 = 14

8 x 2 = 16

9 x 2 = 18

10 x 2 = 20

11 x 2 = 22

12 x 2 = 24

13 x 2 = 26

The products in the two times table are all even numbers.

You can practice learning your two times tables by counting in twos or knowing your doubles. Use your skills to make your way through this free two-times table maze. Then try colouring in all the even numbers on a hundred square or jumping in twos along a number line. Do you notice anything about the pattern?

Learning the two times table is a part of the year 2 national curriculum for primary schools in England. The expectation is that by the end of the year, all students will know their 2, 5 and 10 times tables.

## 3 times table

The three times table is:

1 x 3 = 3

2 x 3 = 6

3 x 3 = 9

4 x 3 = 12

5 x 3 = 15

6 x 3 = 18

7 x 3 = 21

8 x 3 = 24

9 x 3 = 27

10 x 3 = 30

11 x 3 = 33

12 x 3 = 36

13 x 3 = 39

The products in the three times table alternate between odd and even numbers.

Putting the three times table in a three-by-three grid is a handy way to see the number pattern. What do you notice about the green ones numbers?

What do you notice about the red tens numbers?

Practice learning your three times tables by making your way through this free three-times table maze.

Learning the three times table is a part of the year 3 national curriculum for primary schools in England. The expectation is that by the end of the year, all students will know their 3, 4 and 8 times tables.

## 4 times tables

The four times table is:

1 x 4 = 4

2 x 4 = 8

3 x 4 = 12

4 x 4 = 16

5 x 4 = 20

6 x 4 = 24

7 x 4 = 28

8 x 4 = 32

9 x 4 = 36

10 x 4 = 40

11 x 4 = 44

12 x 4 = 48

13 x 4 = 52

The products in the four times table are all even numbers. Can you notice a link between the two times table and the four times table?

Knowing your doubles is really helpful when solving problems involving the four times table. To multiply a number by 4, simply double it and then double the answer.

Six times four is the same as double six times two, or double twelve. Six times four is twenty-four.

Practice learning your four times tables by making your way through this free four-times table maze.

Learning the four times table is a part of the year 3 national curriculum for primary schools in England. The expectation is that by the end of the year, all students will know their 3, 4 and 8 times tables.

## 5 times table

The five times table is:

1 x 5 = 5

2 x 5 = 10

3 x 5 = 15

4 x 5 = 20

5 x 5 = 25

6 x 5 = 30

7 x 5 = 35

8 x 5 = 40

9 x 5 = 45

10 x 5 = 50

11 x 5 = 55

12 x 5 = 60

13 x 5 = 65

What do you notice about the pattern of the five times table?

Did you notice the products of the number sentences alternate between odd and even numbers? All the odd numbers have five ones, all the even numbers have zero ones.

Practice learning your five times tables by making your way through this free five-times table maze.

Learning the five times table is a part of the year 2 national curriculum for primary schools in England. The expectation is that by the end of the year, all students will know their 2, 5 and 10 times tables.

## 6 times table

The six times table is:

1 x 6 = 6

2 x 6 = 12

3 x 6 = 18

4 x 6 = 24

5 x 6 = 30

6 x 6 = 36

7 x 6 = 42

8 x 6 = 48

9 x 6 = 54

10 x 6 = 60

11 x 6 = 66

12 x 6 = 72

13 x 6 = 78

‘If you know your three times table you also know your six times table’. Do you think this statement is true? Explain your answer.

Did you notice that the ones digits in the six times table repeat themselves after five times? Spotting patterns like this can help you remember and check your six times tables.

Practice learning your six times tables by making your way through this free six-times table maze.

Learning the six times table is a part of the year 4 national curriculum for primary schools in England. The expectation is that by the end of the year, all students will know all the multiplication and division facts up to 12 x 12.

## 7 times table

The seven times table is:

1 x 7 = 7

2 x 7 = 14

3 x 7 = 21

4 x 7 = 28

5 x 7 = 35

6 x 7 = 42

7 x 7 = 49

8 x 7 = 56

9 x 7 = 63

10 x 7 = 70

11 x 7 = 77

12 x 7 = 84

13 x 7 = 91

The seven times table is the hardest to learn. This is because seven is a prime number, which means the pattern takes longer to repeat. In fact you have to reach 10 x 7 before the ones digits start to repeat.

Practice learning your seven times tables by making your way through this free seven-times table maze.

Learning the seven times table is a part of the year 4 national curriculum for primary schools in England. The expectation is that by the end of the year, all students will know all the multiplication and division facts up to 12 x 12.

## 8 times table

The eight times table is:

1 x 8 = 8

2 x 8 = 16

3 x 8 = 24

4 x 8 = 32

5 x 8 = 40

6 x 8 = 48

7 x 8 = 56

8 x 8 = 64

9 x 8 = 72

10 x 8 = 80

11 x 8 = 88

12 x 8 = 96

13 x 8 = 104

How do you think the two, the four and the eight times table are linked?

How could you use the four times table to solve 3 x 8? You could solve 3 x 4 and then double it! 3 x 4 = 12, then double 12 is 24.

Can you explain why 3 x 8 is the same as double 3 x 4?

Practice learning your eight times tables by making your way through this free eight-times table maze.

Learning the eight times table is a part of the year 3 national curriculum for primary schools in England. The expectation is that by the end of the year, all students will know their 3, 4 and 8 times tables.

## 9 times table

The nine times table is:

1 x 9 = 9

2 x 9 = 18

3 x 9 = 27

4 x 9 = 36

5 x 9 = 45

6 x 9 = 54

7 x 9 = 63

8 x 9 = 72

9 x 9 = 81

10 x 9 = 90

11 x 9 = 99

12 x 9 = 108

13 x 9 = 117

A handy way to check your nine times table is to use your hands. Hold both your hands up with palms facing you. Number the fingers from left to right as one to ten. Hold down your first finger to work out 1 x 9. The fingers to the left of the folded down finger are the tens. The fingers to the right of the folded down finger are the ones. When you fold down your first finger, there are no fingers to the left so zero tens and nine to the right, so nine ones: 1 x 9 = 9.

Now let’s try 4 x 9.

Hold down your fourth finger to work out 4 x 9. The fingers to the left of the folded down finger are the tens. The fingers to the right of the folded down finger are the ones. When you fold down your fourth finger, there are three fingers to the left so three tens and six to the right, so six ones: 4 x 9 = 36.

Another way to work out the nine times table is to multiply by 10 and then take away the number you multiplied by. Let’s use this method to solve 5 x 9.

5 x 10 = 50

Now take away 5

50 - 5 = 45

5 x 9 = 45

Five multiplied by nine is the same as five multiplied by ten minus one lot of five.

Now let’s try 8 x 9.

8 x 10 = 80

80 - 8 = 72

8 x 9 = 72

Practice learning your nine times tables by making your way through this free nine-times table maze.

Learning the nine times table is a part of the year 4 national curriculum for primary schools in England. The expectation is that by the end of the year, all students will know all the multiplication and division facts up to 12 x 12.

## 10 times tables

The ten times table is:

1 x 10 = 10

2 x 10 = 20

3 x 10 = 30

4 x 10 = 40

5 x 10 = 50

6 x 10 = 60

7 x 10 = 70

8 x 10 = 80

9 x 10 = 90

10 x 10 = 100

11 x 10 = 110

12 x 10 = 120

13 x 10 = 130

What do you notice about the pattern of the ten times table?

Did you notice the products of the number sentences are all even numbers? All the answers have zero ones. The tens number increases by ten each time.

Practice learning your ten times tables by making your way through this free ten-times table maze.

Learning the ten times table is a part of the year 2 national curriculum for primary schools in England. The expectation is that by the end of the year, all students will know their 2, 5 and 10 times tables.

## 11 times table

The eleven times table is:

1 x 11 = 11

2 x 11 = 22

3 x 11 = 33

4 x 11 = 44

5 x 11 = 55

6 x 11 = 66

7 x 11 = 77

8 x 11 = 88

9 x 11 = 99

10 x 11 = 110

11 x 11 = 121

12 x 11 = 132

13 x 11 = 143

What do you notice about the products of the eleven times table? Do you spot any patterns?

Eleven is one more than ten. We can use this information to help us solve a problem involving multiplying by eleven. Three multiplied by eleven is the same as three multiplied by ten plus one more lot of three.

3 x 11  =  3 x 10 + 3  =  30 + 3 = 33

3 x 11 = 33

Did you know you can use a simple trick to work out the answer to eleven multiplied by a two-digit number?

Let’s work out 12 x 11 using this trick.

First split the two numbers that make up 12 into the first and third digit of a three digit number:

1_2

Then work out the missing tens digit of the three digit number by adding the two numbers together: 1+2 = 3

Now place this tens digit in the correct column: 132

12 x 11 = 132

This method becomes more complicated when the product of the two numbers you add is more than 9. When this happens you need to do an extra step.

19 x 11 =

First split the two numbers that make up 19 into the first and third digit of a three digit number:

1_9

Then work out the missing tens digit of the three digit number by adding the two numbers: together. 1+9 = 10

If we followed the previous method and inserted the product of 1+9 into the number we would get 1109. This isn’t correct. So rather than placing the two digits into the middle of the number, we add the 1 from the 10 and the 1 from the 100 and then place the 0 in as our missing digit: 209

19 x 11 = 209

Practice learning your eleven times tables by making your way through this free eleven-times table maze.

Learning the eleven times table is a part of the year 4 national curriculum for primary schools in England. The expectation is that by the end of the year, all students will know all the multiplication and division facts up to 12 x 12.

## 12 times table

The twelve times table is:

1 x 12 = 12

2 x 12 = 24

3 x 12 = 36

4 x 12 = 48

5 x 12 = 60

6 x 12 = 72

7 x 12 = 84

8 x 12 = 96

9 x 12 = 108

10 x 12 = 120

11 x 12 = 132

12 x 12 = 144

13 x 12 = 156

What do you notice about the products of the twelve times table?

What are the tens numbers increasing by?

What are the ones numbers increasing by?

Can you explain what you noticed, and why this pattern happens?

Twelve is two more than ten. We can use this information to help us solve a problem involving multiplying by twelve. Six multiplied by twelve is the same as six multiplied by ten plus two more lots of six.

6 x 12  =  6 x 10 + 6 + 6  =  60 + 6 + 6  =  60 + 12  = 72

6 x 12 = 72

We can also use partitioning to solve this problem. We know that twelve is one ten and two ones. Six multiplied by twelve is the same as six multiplied by ten plus six multiplied by two.

6 x 12  =  6 x 10 + 6 x 2  =  60 + 12  = 72

6 x 12 = 72

Practice learning your twelve times tables by making your way through this free twelve-times table maze.

Learning the twelve times table is a part of the year 4 national curriculum for primary schools in England. The expectation is that by the end of the year, all students will know all the multiplication and division facts up to 12 x 12.

## 13 times table

The thirteen times table is:

1 x 13 = 13

2 x 13 = 26

3 x 13 = 39

4 x 13 = 52

5 x 13 = 65

6 x 13 = 78

7 x 13 = 91

8 x 13 = 104

9 x 13 = 117

10 x 13 = 130

11 x 13 = 143

12 x 13 = 156

13 x 13 = 169

We can use partitioning to solve thirteen times table problems. Think back to how we worked out the twelve times table and apply the same methods.

Solve 5 x 13 using partitioning:

13 is 10 + 3

5 x 13  =  5 x 10 + 5 x 3  =  50 + 15  = 65

5 x 13 = 65

Solve 12 x 13 using partitioning:

13 is 10 + 3

12 x 13  =  12 x 10 + 12 x 3  =  120 + 36  = 156

12 x 13 = 156

If solving 12 x 3 is too tricky, we can partition twelve further:

12 x 13

= 12 x 10 + 12 x 3

= 12 x 10 + 10 x 3 + 2 x 3

= 120 + 30 + 6

= 156

12 x 13 = 156

If you can solve these thirteen times table number sentences you can solve just about any multiplication problem, simply apply your knowledge of multiplication and partitioning.

## When are times tables taught in the English National Curriculum?

Children are formally taught multiplication tables from Year 2 onwards. In the Early Years and Year 1, children develop number knowledge, which gives them strong foundations to build on as they move into a more abstract understanding of numbers.

The Maths National Curriculum document outlines the following statutory requirements regarding times tables:

## Year 2 times tables

### In Year 2, children are taught to:

‘recall and use multiplication and division facts for the 2, 5 and 10 multiplication tables, including recognising odd and even numbers’ (page 13).

## Year 3 times tables

### In Year 3, children are taught to:

‘recall and use multiplication and division facts for the 3, 4 and 8 multiplication tables’ (page 19).

## Year 4 times tables

### In Year 4, children are taught to:

‘recall multiplication and division facts for multiplication tables up to 12 × 12’ (page 25).

PlanBee have a wide selection of maths schemes dedicated to teaching multiplication and times tables. We have a whole collection of multiplication and division schemes of work you can view, or alternatively check out our curriculum objective checker to focus on a specific national curriculum objective.